Vaginoplasty is a reconstructive surgery performed for two main reasons
- Reconstruction of Neo-Vagina in people with a congenital deformity- the absence of vagina or sex reassignment surgery for ambiguous genitalia.
- Reconstruction of aging and patulous vagina in patients with multiple pregnancies, episiotomy defects. It is also called as vaginal tightening surgery.
Multiple pregnancy and episiotomy performed during normal vaginal delivery tend to stretch the national muscle and mucosa with the formation of scar tissue. This leads to patulous vagina causing symptoms such as-
- Inadequate sexual arousal or satisfaction
- Prolapse of uterus
- Urinary incontinence and stress incontinence
Vaginoplasty in such situation is performed under general anaesthesia. The stretched mucosa and scar is removed, the muscle is repaired thus reducing the size of the vagina.
In cases of congenital deformities and absence of the vagina, a neovagina is reconstructed by a surgical procedure to create space between the urinary bladder and rectum. The new space requires a skin graft along with a spacer to hold the graft in place and maintain the size of the neovagina. The graft is accepted in 10 days to 2 weeks. Following this patients are advised to use vaginal dilators to prevent the skin graft from contracting in the initially few months after the surgery.